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刘淑芬:肇东市农民专业合作社发展对策研究
作者:硕士 刘淑芬;导师 来永才 钱春荣     来源:中国农业科学院-农村与区域发展;2012年获得硕士学位     日期:2012-12-12  浏览:341

  【摘要】 中国农民专业合作社是在农村家庭联产承包责任制后完善农村市场经济的有效手段,它可以在坚持生产经营主体多元化和独立性的前提下,把农业生产的经营主体一一农户联合起来,可以有效地提高农民的市场经济观念,组织化程度,降低生产成本和交易费用,提高抵御风险的能力,是实现农村经济发展规范化、专业化和产业化的重要组织形式。国内外众多相关学者对农民专业合作社的前景、作用进行了深入探讨与分析,纷纷指出农民专业合作社在农业跨越发展、农村持续繁荣和农民稳定增收方面发挥着不可替代性作用。加强农民专业合作社的大力发展,对巩固农业在我国的基础地位,提高农业的产业发展水平,增强农产品国际竞争力等都有极为重要意义。基于此,本文首先回顾了国内外农民专业合作社发展经历,分析了农民专业合作社的内涵、特点和法律地位;其次采用文献与调查研究相结合的和经典研究与一般研究相结合的方法,对肇东市农民专业合作社现状、发展特点和创新举措等内容进行分析,探讨新市场需求对农民专业合作社发展要求;再次,对肇东市农民专业合作社的经典案例分析,提出肇东市农民专业合作社取得的成绩及存在的问题;最后,对肇东市农民专业合作社的发展现状和存在问题进行分析,总结出肇东市农民专业合作社发展趋势和发展对策。

  研究结果表明,在农民专业合作社发展数量上,肇东市有组织、有机构、有章程、有制度规范发展的农民专业合作社发展到 1446 个,占黑龙江省农民专业合作社的 7.6%;入社农户 4.3 万户,占农户总数 14.5%,高于全国平均水平 4.5 个百分点;现有出资额为 33.8 亿元,占黑龙江省农民专业合作社出资额的 15.0%。说明肇东市农民专业合作社在黑龙江省无论是数量上还是在资金上都有着举足轻重的地位。

  肇东市农民专业合作社兴办力量呈现多元化发展趋势,根据调查,组建主要包括能人或专业大户牵头领办型、村级组织牵头领办型、龙头企业牵头领办型、事业单位牵头领办型四种形式。其中,能人或专业大户牵头领办的专业合作社 1245 个,占总数的 86.1%,在领办形式中占据主要位置。

  在农民专业合作社发展方面,肇东市探索出了一些新作法、新模式,推进了农民专业合作社快速发展。公司化经营模式,构建了以农民专业合作社为主体的“1+X”经营模式,“1”就是乡镇里成立 1 个现代农业开发总公司,“X”就是在公司统领下组建若干个专业合作社。总公司从专业合作社经营利润中,提取 5%作为公司运行管理费用,每个合作社将利润的 60%返还给入社农民,利润的 35%作为合作社发展经营资金;标准化建设模式,所有种植业农民专业合作社都按照田成方、林成网、机耕暄、保水源、路畅通基础设施“五位一体”建设要求,进行现代农业标准化农业建设;生产技术模式,经过省农科院专家和肇东市乡科技骨干反复研究论证,结合实际确定了“深松整地、选用良种、种子包衣、配方施肥、精点密植、滤水机播、节水灌溉、化控调节、防螟促熟、早种晚收”40 字技术措施,实现先进技术综合组装配套,经营管理规范统一;综合服务保障模式,建立了龙头企业、商业银行、科研院校与农业开发公司有机衔接的农业产业链生产要素配置模式,有效解决了资金筹措难、科技推广难、产品销售难的问题。

  在肇东市农民专业合作社中选取出五里明镇农民专业种植合作社、向阳乡瓜菜种植专业合作社、昌五镇肉牛养殖专业合作社等三个有普遍性和代表性的案例进行分析,其发展过程和发展方式,是肇东农民专业合作社发展的一个缩影,起到了“拔亮一盏灯,照亮一大片”的带动辐射作用,具有较强的说服力。综合来看,肇东市农民专业合作社发展形成了一定的规模,探索了一系列实用性强的机制,取得了一定的经济效益和社会效益。但在发展中仍然曝露出一些共性问题,比如农民专业合作社发展缺乏社会化科学指导,内部运行机制不规范,社会扶持发展力度不够和社员整体素质不高等。

  最后,总结出肇东市农民专业合作社发展的五个趋势。以龙头企业为牵动的产业化发展趋势,采取“企业+合作社+基地+农户”形式,利于企地发展。以合作社为依托的规模化发展趋势,克服了分散经营缺陷,增强了农业整体竞争能力,避免了一家一户经营的随机性、随意性。以科技为支撑的标准化发展趋势,依靠标准化生产,稳定提升农产品产量,产品性价比更高,经济运行成本更加合理。以运行机制更加科学完善为前提的规范化发展趋势,合作社内部制度完善,执行力高,分工明确,监管到位,合作社的整体带动作用更加突出。以同业规模扩张为推手的跨区化发展趋势,打破现有界限束缚,进而实现跨村、跨乡、跨县等跨区域发展。

  对策是:提高内部制度运行的规范化,规范章程制度和内部管理;提供合作社可持续发展的力量支撑,包括资金支撑和技术支撑;加大社会化合作化推进力度,发挥合作社规模化经营、组织化生产、公司化运作等优势,主动融入社会化合作化发展轨道;加大力度贯彻宣传《中华人民共和国农民专业合作社法》,通过宣传培训,造成全社会共同支持农民专业合作社发展的良好环境氛围。

  【Abstract】Farmer professional cooperative is perfecting rural marker economy effective means after the household contract responsibility in China, is the important organization form of developing rural economy towards standardization, specialization and industrialization, is the important initiatives of the government of the rural economy management. Many domestic and foreign scholars have carried on prospects and action of the famer professional cooperative thorough discussion and analysis, have pointed out it has played an irreplaceable role in agricultural development, rural prosperity and stability, and developing of farmers professional cooperative is very necessary in the current economic development level in China. Strengthen farmer professional cooperatives to develop energetically can consolidate the fundamental position of agriculture in our country, improve the level of industrial development of Agriculture, enhance the international competitiveness of agricultural products and so on.

  For the reason above, this paper first reviews the domestic and foreign development of farmers' professional cooperatives experience, analysis of the farmers' professional cooperatives connotation, characteristics and legal status. Followed by the farmers professional cooperatives in Zhao dong city to visit and investigation, we analysis the development status, characteristics and innovation, explicit to establish form and operation mechanism, and discuss market demand for thedevelopment of farmers' professional cooperatives.

  #p#副标题#e#       The results of the study show that, in the development quantity of farmers' professional cooperatives, Zhao dong city organized, institutions, articles of association, and the development of a system standard farmers' professional cooperatives development to 1446, accounting for 7.6% of the Heilongjiang farmers' professional cooperatives; into the club farmers 43000, and the total number of farmers 14.5%, higher than the national average of 4.5%; the existing capital contribution for 3.38 billion , accounting for farmers' professional cooperatives in Heilongjiang province 15.0% of the capital contributions. This shows that the farmers' professional cooperatives in Zhao dong city in both the quantity or in the capital are the balance of power in Heilongjiang province.

  Zhao dong city farmers' professional cooperatives initiated power present diversified development trend. According to the survey, the formation of mainly includes artist or professional investors lead type, village organization lead type, leading enterprises lead type, institution lead type four forms. Among them, the artist or professional investors lead had 1245 and took leading position accounting for 86.1%.

  In the development of farmers’ professional cooperatives, Zhao dong city explored some new practices and new model, promoted the farmers' professional cooperatives rapid development. Company business model, that built farmers' professional cooperatives for the subject of "1 + X" business model, and "1" was established in the town a modern agricultural development corporation, "X" was in the company and a professional cooperatives under several. For example, head office extracted 5% as the company operation management fees from professional cooperatives operating profit, and rotary farmers would gain 60% of the profits, and the remaining 35% of the profits proved to be the cooperative development operation fund; The standardized construction mode, that required all the planting industry farmers' professional cooperatives according to “fields into square, Shelter into nets, tractor-plough well, guarantee of water supply, and the coast clear” construction requirements; Production technology pattern, passing by the provincial academy of experts and Zhao dong city township technology repeated research, and combining with actual determined the "deep loosening soil preparation, choose thoroughbred, coated seed, formula fertilization, fine point density, water planting, water-saving irrigation, control regulation, anti-borer ripening, and early sow, late harvest " technical measures to achieve the comprehensive assembling complete advanced technology and management standard unification; Comprehensive service security model, set up the leading enterprises, commercial bank, scientific research institutions and agricultural development company organic link agriculture industry chain of production elements configuration mode, effectively solved the financing difficult, science and technology promotion difficult, product sales, the difficult question.

  This thesis selected several universality and representative of the professional cooperatives to analysis the development process and development mode, including the farmers' professional of Wuliming planting cooperatives and Xiangyang township melons, vegetables planting professional cooperatives, Changwu town beef cattle breeding professional cooperatives, etc. Taken together, Zhao dong city farmers' professional cooperatives developed certain scale, explored a series of practical mechanism, and have obtained the certain economic benefits and social benefit. But in the developing it still exposed out some common problems, such as farmers' professional cooperatives was lack of social science development guidance, internal operation mechanism was not standard, Social support the development of power was not enough and membership quality was not high, etc.

  Finally, the author drew five trends of Zhao dong city famers’ professional cooperatives. It was leading enterprise of industrialization development trend for affects, taking "enterprise + cooperatives + base + farmer" form, beneficial to the development of enterprises. It was based on the cooperative development trend of scale, overcoming the defects separate management, and enhancing the agricultural whole competition ability, avoiding a household management of randomness, optional sex. It was the science and technology support for the standardization of development trend, relying on standardized production, the steady improvement in agricultural production, the product more cost-effective, economic operation cost more reasonable. It was running the system more scientific and perfecting the premise of standardized development trend, cooperatives internal system perfect, the execution high, a clear division, supervision in place, the whole of the cooperative impetus function more outstanding. It was the expansion of the trade for the development trend of transnationalization, breaking the existing limit, and achieving cross village, township, cross county across trans-regional development, etc.

  Based on the empirical results above, the following countermeasures are given. Cooperative should improve the standardization of the internal system operation, standard system and internal management articles; cooperative should provide cooperative support, including funding support and technical support; cooperative should increase the socialization cooperative efforts, playing scale management and organization cooperative production, the company operation and other advantages and active integrate social cooperative development track; cooperative should intensify efforts to propaganda the law of the People's Republic of farmers' professional co-operatives law, through the propaganda training, caused the whole society to support farmers' professional co-operatives the good development environment.

  【关键词】 农民专业合作社; 发展对策; 肇东市;

  【Key words】 Farmer professional cooperation;the development countermeasures;Zhao dong city

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