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王春艳:多中心治理模式下农民专业合作社发展研究——以山东省L镇兴农洋香瓜专业合作社为例
作者:硕士 王春艳;导师 刘杰     来源: 东北财经大学-社会学;2012年获得硕士学位     日期:2013-06-18  浏览:420

  【摘要】 我国的农民专业合作社是在农村家庭承包经营基础上,同类农产品的生产经营者或者同类农业生产经营服务的提供者、利用者,自愿联合、民主管理的互助性经济组织。国家将发展农民专业合作社作为新时期建设社会主义新农村的一项重要举措,是适应农村繁荣、农民增收及市场经济的内在需要,克服当前分散经营带来的各种弊端、抵御自然和市场风险的新形式。

  我国的合作社虽然起步较晚,处于初级阶段,但发展迅速。特别是2007年《农民专业合作社法》实施以来,农民专业合作社在全国各地特别是经济较为发达地区纷纷发展起来,其数量日益增多,涉及领域也在不断扩大。改革开放以来,我国农民专业合作社经历了由人为推动逐步走向自发形成,再到政府引导、自主发展的过程。在这一发展历程中,农民专业合作社的治理暴露出不少问题。随着外部发展环境的不断改善,深入研究合作社治理问题,完善治理结构和机制,提升合作的多层次、多方面,将是合作社发展的现实需要和迫切要求。

  多中心治理是西方发达国家社会治理的主要模式,近年来亦成为中国社会管理的核心内容。基于其在实践领域的成功应用模式,逐渐成为理论界关注的热点。特别是继多中心治理理论的代表人物——埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆(Elinor Ostrom,1933-2012)获得2009年诺贝尔经济学奖之后,这一理论更是得到广泛的社会关注。这一理论具有多学科交叉的性质,与政治学、经济学、法学和社会学具有紧密的关系。

  本文以国内外现有相关研究成果为起点,以多中心治理为基本视角,并结合社会资本、社会互动等理论,通过个案研究和文献研究法,分析农民专业合作社发展运行中存在的问题;力图借鉴、运用多中心治理理论,结合中国经验,优化农民专业合作社的治理。文章通过理论综合和实践分析,研究农民专业合作社的现行治理模式及其存在的问题和原因,如:合作社内部制度和运行机制不完善,缺乏有效的决策、监督和激励制度,组织机构和章程形同虚设;合作社成员参与动机和能力不高;政府行为的“越位”和“缺位”现象并存等等。同时,在分析当前中国现实环境的基础上,运用多中心治理的相关理论,构建“政府引导、农户为主、多方参与、多样合作、自愿组合、民主管理”的农民专业合作社治理模式,使其更好地为社员和广大农民服务。建构农民专业合作社的多中心治理模式是一项复杂的工程,涉及各方面利益,不仅需要强化农民的主体地位,还要发挥政府的职能作用,除调动各参与主体的积极性外,还应完善相应的配套措施和制度安排,为实现多中心治理提供相应的制度保障。

  本论文由五章组成。第一章绪论。介绍研究背景、研究的目的和意义,国内外研究现状与发展趋势,明确论文的研究思路、方法与主要内容,指出了论文可能的创新点和不足之处。第二章相关理论及主要概念。介绍了社会组织、社会资本、合作社、农民专业合作社及治理等概念,并重点阐述了多中心治理理论的思想内容,具体包括该理论的思想渊源与提出、基本内容和特征等几个方面。第三章山东省L镇洋香瓜专业合作社发展的基本状况及治理模式。在对L镇兴农洋香瓜专业合作社进行调查的基础上,介绍了该合作社的发展现状、现行的治理模式及其特征,分析合作社运行中存在的主要问题及其原因。第四章多中心治理理论视角下农民专业合作社建构的一般基础与条件。通过案例分析结合中国社会的实际,分析农民专业合作社多中心治理建构的政策支持、市场条件、地域优势和公民参与等多种有利条件。第五章中国特色农民专业合作社多中心治理的建构。首先简单介绍了中国的治理理论和中国模式下的多中心治理理论,及中国特色的农民专业合作社多中心治理模式,随后就中国特色农民专业合作社多中心治理需要着重解决的主要问题,提出相应对策以建构农民合作社多中心治理的模式。

  【ABSTRACT】China's farmer professional cooperatives are Mutual-Aid Economic Organizations which are established on the basis of rural household contract management. Producers of similar agricultural products or services providers of similar agricultural production and management voluntarily join the association and adopt democratic management. China tread developing specialized farmer cooperatives as an important initiative for the new era of building a new socialist countryside which suits to rural prosperity,income increase of peasants, internal needs of the market economy and serves as a new method to overcome all the disadvantages of decentralized management as well as to resist the natural and market risks.

  In spite of their late beginning, and still being in its infancy, china's cooperatives are rapidly growing. Especially since the implementation of ‘ Farmers Specialized Cooperatives Act, in 2007, farmers professional cooperatives are established one after another across the country, especially in the economically developed regions. With the ever growing number of the farmer professional cooperatives, they have also covered more and more fields. Since the reform and opening up, China's farmer professional cooperatives gradually experienced the course from human-driven step, spontaneous formation to self-development under the government guidance. In the course of this progress, many problems concerning their governance exposed. With the continuous improvement of external environment, the actual and urgent needs and requirements for the development of these cooperatives should be in-depth study of cooperative governance, improvement of governance structures and mechanisms and enhancement of cooperation in multi-level and multi-facet.

  Polycentric Governance is a main model in western developed countries and develops into core content in social management of China. It became a hot topic in the theoretical world, basing on the successful applied model in practices. This theory attracts more attention from the society after Elinor Ostrom( 1933-2012), a representative of Polycentric Governance won The Noble Prize in economics in 2009. This theory is multidisciplinary. It has a close connection with politics, economics, laws and sociology.

  This study analyzes the problems in the operation of farmers' professional cooperative development from the perspective of multi-center governance basing on the results of researches both abroad and at home and case study. And also this study aims to optimize the governance of farmer professional cooperatives under the guidance of polycentric governance theory. Through analytical reasoning, this paper finds the following problems of the farmer professional cooperatives, such as, inadequate internal systems and operating mechanisms, lacking of effective decision-making, monitoring and incentive systems, dummy organization structure and their standing rules, insufficient participation and ability of the cooperative members and the phenomenon of government "offside” and ” absent". Meanwhile, on the basis of analysis of the current reality and with the polycentric governance theory, this paper is aiming to perfect the governance model of farmer professional cooperatives featured by government guidance, farmers oriented, multi-sides participated, diversified cooperation forms, voluntary grouping and democratic management. Therefore the cooperatives can better serve our people. Since it is a complex project and involves the interests of all parties, many efforts should be taken, like enhancing the dominant position of farmers, drawing on the functional role of the Government, mobilizing enthusiasm of the main participants and perfecting the corresponding supportive measures and institutional arrangements to provide the appropriate institutional guarantee for the realization of the polycentric governance.

  There are five chapters in this thesis. Chapter 1 is introduction. In which the background aims, and significances of this study will be put forward. This chapter introduces the creative points and limitations. Chapter 2 presents the relevant terms and main definitions. In this chapter, the definition of social organizations, social capital’ cooperative and farmer specialized cooperatives and management will be introduced. The content of multi-center governance will be presented, too. It includes relevant thought origin, basic content, and characteristics. Chapter 3 will introduce the development and governance model of must melon farmers' professional cooperative in L town. Basing on the researches on the situation and development status of must melon farmers' professional cooperative in L town, the development status, governance model, characteristics, problems, and reasons in the operation of farmers' professional cooperative. Chapter 4 is about the general foundations and conditions of farmers' professional cooperative from the perspective of multi-center governance. By combining the case with the reality in China, the policy support of multi-center governance, market conditions, geographical advantage, citizen participation and other favorable conditions will be analyzed. Chapter 5 is the construction of farmers' professional cooperative with Chinese characteristics. First, the theory of multi-center governance under China's governance theory and model will be briefly introduced. Basing on the problems in multi-center governance of farmers' professional cooperative with Chinese characteristics, the strategies will be proposed to construct the model of multi-center governance of farmers' professional cooperative.

  【关键词】 合作社; 农民专业合作社; 多中心治理; 社会资本; 治理机制;

  【Key Words】 Cooperative. Farmer Specialized Cooperatives, Multi-center Governance, Social Capital,Governance Mechanism

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