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李丽莎:云南花农合作社社员收益增长机理研究
作者:博士 李丽莎;导师     来源: 西南大学-农业经济管理;2013年获得博士学位     日期:2014-06-07  浏览:362

  【摘要】 随着农产品加工商和零售商规模的扩大,小农户在农产品交易中的弱势地位越来越明显。同时国际市场的开放使农产品市场竞争更加激烈,小农户的收益空间变得越来越窄。在小农户与大市场的对接中,小农户如何获得合理收益,成为我国农业发展中一个至关重要的问题。云南花卉产业办公室统计数据显示,云南70%以上的鲜切花由花农生产,分散经营的方式形成较高的生产费用、销售费用与交易成本;面临较大的生产经营风险;造成花农生产经营收益空间被严重挤占的现象。农民专业合作社是提高农民生产经营组织化程度的重要载体。为了克服分散经营的缺陷,促进生产经营收益增加,由农民自发、以农民为本的花农合作社应运而生。目前云南花农合作社已超过100个,成为云南鲜切花产业发展的重要力量。云南花农合作社把花农组织起来,实行“统一技术、统一包装、统一品牌、统一销售”的经营模式,为花农提供产前、产中与产后服务。不少花农合作社商标成为昆明国际花卉拍卖市场中的知名品牌,明显增加了社员收益,社员每亩收益增长超过20%。

  一、研究的问题

  本研究的选题来源于云南花农合作社促进社员收益显著增长的经济现象,研究的问题可以归纳为云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长的机理,主要包括两个方面。第一方面是揭示云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长是如何实现的:第二个方面是从合作社业务解释云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长的内部原因。

  二、研究的主要内容

  (一)本研究描述了花农合作社对社员收益影响传递的基本过程:合作社通过业务活动影响社员的生产经营行为,改变社员生产经营行为对应的经济变量,从而改变花农收益的直接影响因素,形成社员收益的变化。(二)本研究以云南花农合作社对社员收益影响的传递过程为基础,从云南花农合作社的三大基本业务:生产资料供应业务、种植技术与生产标准指导业务、及代理销售业务,分析并且提出了云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长的机理。(三)本研究通过云南省鲜切花主产区晋宁县与通海县523户花农的经验数据,检验了了云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长机理对应的研究假说,基于云南花农合作社三大基本业务实证分析了云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长的路径与效果。

  三、研究的结论(一)生产资料供应业务的增收原因1.改善社员品种,促进交易价格提高云南花农在选择品种方面存在的主要问题为:过度集中于部分品种;不愿尝试新品种;缺乏市场行情判断力。在种苗供应业务中,云南花农合作社可以通过品种规定协议或品种推荐,要求或鼓励社员选择新品种,发挥品种调节效应。云南鲜切花新品种市场价格明显高于老品种,花农合作社通过种苗供应业务引导社员更新品种,有利于提高社员获得的交易价格,促进社员收益增长。根据实证研究结果:社员品种类型显著比非社员新;资源禀赋对社员品种类型影响显著,其中劳动力年龄、组织者年龄、组织者教育年限、组织者健康状况是社员品种类型的重要影响因素:合作社基本特征及相关服务对社员品种类型影响显著,其中合作社推荐品种服务结果、品种约束及商标知名度是社员品种类型的重要影响因素。此外鲜切花品种类型对花农交易价格影响显著,鲜切花品种类型越新,花农获得高交易价格的可能性就越大,即种植新品种花农获得高交易价格的可能性大于种植旧品种的花农。2.减少种苗费用种苗采购价格与采购数最是种苗费用的直接决定因素。花农合作社提高了社员采购种苗的组织化程度,拥有更大的采购规模,降低了种苗的采购价格。此外花农合作社的种苗指导提高了社员的种苗成活率,减少了社员需要购买的种苗数量。因而花农合作社通过种苗供应业务能够减少社员的种苗费用,降低社员生产费用,促进社员收益增长。根据实证研究结果:社员种苗费用显著小于非社员;资源禀赋对社员种苗费用影响显著,其中组织者教育年限、组织者健康状况、种植同一品种的亲朋好友人数是社员种苗费用的重要影响因素;合作社基本特征及相关服务对社员品种类型影响显著,其中合作社商标知名度、合作社种苗质量水平与合作社成立年限是社员种苗费用的重要影响因素。3.减少化肥费用化肥采购价格与采购数量是化肥费用的直接决定因素。花农合作社提高了社员采购的组织化程度,降低了采购化肥的价格与风险。同时合作社关于肥料的指导提高了社员的施肥技术,改善了社员的肥料结构,从而减少社员采购化肥的数量。因而花农合作社通过化肥供应业务能够减少社员的化肥费用,降低社员生产费用,促进社员收益增长。但是检验结果显示:社员每亩化肥费用没有显著低于非社员,即两者之间没有显著差异;是否为社员对花农化肥费用也没有显著影响;而且合作社的特征与相关服务对社员化肥费用亦没有显著影响。检验结果说明大多数云南花农合作社的化肥供应业务没有有效减少社员化肥费用,在化肥供应业务方面还存在很大的提升空间。4.减少农药费用农药采购价格与采购数量是农药费用的直接决定因素。花农合作社提高了社员采购化肥的组织化程度,拥有更大采购规模,降低了农药的采购价格。此外,花农合作社的农药施用指导及病虫害治理技术推广提高了社员的农药施用效率,减少了社员需要购买农药的数量。因而花农合作社能够通过农药供应业务减少社员农药采购费用,降低社员生产费用,促进社员收益增长。根据实证研究结果:社员农药费用显著小于非社员;社员资源禀赋对农药费用影响显著,其中劳动力人数、组织者教育年限与劳动力年龄是社员农药费用的重要影响因素;合作社基本特征及服务评价对社员农药费用影响显著,其中合作社商标知名度与合作社成立年限是社员农药费用的重要影响因素。(二)种植技术与生产标准指导业务的增收原因1.提高鲜切花质量,促进交易价格提高花农种植科学化与规范化的影响因素可以归纳为内部因素与外部因素两个方面:内部因素主要是指花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习意识与学习能力:外部因素主要是指花农学习种植技术与生产标准的渠道与环境。花农合作社的种植技术与生产标准业务,激发了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习意识;增加了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习渠道;提高了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习效果;引导社员种植行为的科学化与规范化,将农业技术转化为实际生产力,使社员获得更高的鲜切花质量。根据实证研究结果:社员鲜切花质量显著高于非社员;资源禀赋对社员鲜切花质量影响显著,其中劳动力个数、劳动力年龄、组织者教育年限与种植鲜切花年限是社员鲜切花质量的重要影响因素:合作社基本特征及服务评价对社员鲜切花质量影响显著,其中生产标准指导服务与种植技术指导服务是社员鲜切花质量的重要影响因素。2.提高社员种植能力,促进每亩产量提高花农合作社的种植技术与生产标准业务,激发了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习意识;增加了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习渠道;提高了花农对种植技术与生产标准的学习效果:引导社员种植行为的科学化与规范化,提高社员生产力,使花农合作社社员获得更高的鲜切花每亩平均产量。根据实证研究结果:社员鲜切花每亩平均产量显著高于非社员;社员资源禀赋对鲜切花每亩平均产量影响显著,其中种植面积、组织者年龄、市场距离是社员每亩平均产量的重要影响因素;合作社基本特征及服务对鲜切花每亩平均产量影响显著,其中合作社商标知名度与成立年限是社员鲜切花每亩平均产量的重要影响因素。(三)代理销售业务的增收原因1.提高销售规模与专业化,促进销售费用降低花农合作社代理销售业务对社员销售费用的影响主要为以下四个方面:第一,花农合作社在运输鲜切花方面,具有规模优势,可以节约运输费用;第二,花农合作社销售方式中,一次交易的数量一般比普通花农大,可以大大节约寻找买主与完成交易的时间;第二,与普通花农相比,花农合作社销售活动的专业化程度大幅度提高,具有更大的销售网络与更丰富的交易经验,能够更有效率地完成鲜切花交易,从而节约销售费用:第四,花农将销售鲜切花的家庭内部劳动外部化以后,在销售鲜切花方面节约了时间与精力,不仅减少雇工费用,而且有利于提高鲜切花的质量与产量。因此,花农合作社改变了以家庭为单位的销售方式,发挥了鲜切花销售的规模效应,提高了鲜切花的交易效率,降低了社员的销售费用,促进了社员收益的增长。根据实证研究结果:社员销售费用显著低于非社员;社员资源禀赋对销售费用影响显著,其中市场距离、劳动力个数、劳动力年龄是社员销售费用的重要影响因素;合作社基本特征及服务对社员销售费用影响显著,其中合作社成立年限、销售服务评价及社员规模是社员销售费用的重要影响因素。2.增强市场势力,促进交易价格提高花农合作社的销售规模大于单户花农自行销售,提高了社员鲜切花销售的组织化程度,减小了花农与批发商市场势力的差距,提高了市场交易地位。同时,花农合作社拥有自己的商标,有利于提高产品的市场竞争力,发挥商标的品牌效应。因此,花农合作社的代理销售业务能够使社员获得更高的交易价格,从而促进社员收益增长。根据实证研究结果:社员交易价格显著高于非社员;资源禀赋对社员交易价格影响显著,其中劳动力个数、劳动力年龄、市场距离、种植鲜切花年限是社员交易价格的重要影响因素;合作社基本特征及服务对社员平均交易价格影响显著,合作社销售服务评价是社员交易价格的重要影响因素。

  四、可能的创新点

  (一)萨皮罗学派强调合作社应该按照农产品种类来组织,而且农民专业合作社在不同地区的发展存在巨大差异。所以在农民专业合作社研究中,我们需要尊重农民专业合作社的农产品种类与地区特征。本研究以云南地区,鲜切花种类的农民专业合作社为研究对象,丰富了我国农民专业合作社基于特定地区、特定农产品种类的研究。我们在实证研究中发现:除了化肥费用,合作社基本特征及服务对社员生产经营行为对应的经济变量影响都显著,说明花农合作社在社员生产经营中具有重要地位,从生产经营行为方面证明了花农合作社是促进社员收益增长的重要载体。(二)大多数农民专业合作社对社员收益影响的研究往往关注于社员收益与非社员收益之间的差异,忽略了花农合作社差异对社员收益的影响。本研究以合作社基本特征(合作社规模、成立年限、商标知名度)及合作社服务评价为解释变量,分析了合作社差异对社员收益影响,揭示合作社促进社员收益增长效果存在差异的内部原因,加深了农民专业合作社对社员收益影响的研究。在实证研究中,我们发现生产标准指导、商标知名度及供应农药质量是目前影响云南花农合作社促进社员收益增长效果的重要因素。(三)现有的大多数研究往往从农户农业生产经营收入、农户农业生产经营费用或某项农户农业生产经营行为来分析合作社对社员收益的影响,本研究选择从合作社基本业务出发来分析花农合作社促进社员收益增长的机理,具有一定的新意,为从花农合作社业务视角来促进社员收益增长提供了理论基础与实证基础。

  【关键词】 农民专业合作社; 花农合作社; 社员收益; 增长机理; 鲜切花产业;

  【Abstract】For the strength of agricultural production processors and agricultural production tradesmenbecoming more and more powerful, the strength of small farmers has been weaker and weaker inthe agricultural production trades. In addition, with the more open markets to internationalagricultural production, the competition of agricultural production market has been more and moredrastic. As a result, the income space of small farmers has been smaller and smaller. It has been acritical problem in agricultural development of our country how to gain the equal income inagricultural production trades. In order to gain equal income in agricultural production trades,fanner households should increase the production, improve the quality, save production cost andsales cost, and acquire a higher price. Farmer cooperative is an important tool to increase thedegrees of organization: and integration on fanners producing and operating. According to the datafrom Yunnan flower industry office, small farmer households produce the part that is the seventypercents of Yunnan fresh flowers. Because the decentralized operation method of small fanners hasbrought out high sales fee and trade cost, the income space of small farmers will become smallerand smaller. In order to increase the income of small farmers, the number of all kinds ofcooperative organizations of fresh flower small farmers has been five hundred and thirty-two,among farmer cooperatives having been more than one hundred. The farmer cooperatives havebeen an important strength of Yunnan fresh flower industry developing. Yunnan fresh farmercooperatives have made small farmers as a group, using the operation mode of the same technology,the same packing, the same mark, and the same sales, supply the service to small farmers before, in,and after the fresh flower producing. Because some marks of fresh flower farmer cooperatives. have been well known in Kunming international flower markets, the member's income has beenincreased significantly. The income per mu has increased more than twenty percents.

  IResearch QuestionOur research's subject is from the economic phenomena, that the members' income of Yunnanfresh flower farmer cooperative has increased evidently. The subject can be included the growthmechanism of the member's income of Yunnan fresh flower farms' cooperative. The subject can bedivided into two parts. The first part is how to realize the growth of the member's income ofYunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative. The second part is to find the inner reason of the growthof the member's income of Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative.

  IIMain ContentsAround the research question, the main contents of our research are:

  By the starting point, the conduction path, and the mediate, our rcscarch is to cicsuiiuc ihcprocess how Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative influences on member's income, and putforward the conduction mechanism of Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative influencingmember's income. The conduction mechanism is that Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperativeinfluences the member's behavior of producing and operating by the service in business, changesthe economic variables which are connected by the member's behavior, then changes the mediate,finally make the change of member's income.

  2.Based on the delivery process of fresh flower farmer cooperative influencing member'sincome, our research puts forward the growth mechanism of member's income of Yunnan freshflower farmer cooperative. We put forward the mechanism from the basic business of Yunnan freshflower farmer cooperative. The basic business of Yunnan fresh flower cooperative includes thebusiness of supplying member's production means, the business of inducting the plantingtechnology and the production standards, and the business of making an agent for the sales ofmember's fresh flowers.

  3.Our sample data are from five hundred twenty-three householders who are planting freshflower in Yunnan province. At first, our research has done tests on the growth mechanism ofmembers' income. Secondly, we have done empirical study on the influence of the decisionvariables to farmer's income. Thirdly, we analyze the influence of the cooperative's characteristicsand service to member's income.

  IIIResearch Conclusions1. The growth mechanism of member's income of Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative(1) The growth mechanism based on the business of supplying the production means① The mechanism of improving the type of variety Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative enhances the members* wills and strength ofchanging the variety. Because the price of new variety is higher than the price of old variety, thecost increased by changing old variety is less than the earnings increased by changing old variety.

  Therefore, fresh flower fanner cooperative can help members* income grow by inducting membersto change old variety by the business in supplying seedlings. According to the empirical studyresults, the members' variety is newer than the nonmembers' variety; resource endowment caninfluence the type of member's variety significantly; the service of recommending variety, theconstraints of variety, and the well-known remark of cooperative are the important effects ofmembers' variety.

  ②The mechanism of decreasing the expenditure of seedlingsFor organizing members to purchase seedlings, the purchase scale of fresh flower farmercooperative is larger than the scale of one householder. Therefore, farmer cooperative can gain thelower price of seedlings. Besides the seedling, guidance of farmer cooperative can decrease thequantity of seedlings by increasing the survival rate of seedlings. Therefore fresh flower farmercooperative can decrease members' cost of production by decreasing their expenditure of seedlings,and cause the growth of members' income consequently. According to the results of empirical study,the member's expenditure of seedlings are less than the nonmembers' remarkably; resourceendowment can influence the farmers' expenditure of seedlings significantly; the well-knownremark of farmer cooperative, the quality of seedlings, and the year of fanner cooperative, are theimportant effects of members' variety.

  ③The mechanism of decreasing the expenditure of chemical fertilizerFor organizing members to purchase chemical fertilizer, the purchase scale of fresh flowerfarmer cooperative is larger than the scale of one householder. Therefore, farmer cooperative cangain the lower price of chemical fertilizer. Besides the fertilizer, guidance of farmer cooperative candecrease the quantity of chemical fertilizer. Therefore fresh flower farmer cooperative can decreasemembers' cost of production by decreasing their expenditure of chemical fertilizer, and cause thegrowth of members' income consequently. According to the results of empirical study, themember's expenditure of chemical fertilizer is not less than the nonmembers, expenditureremarkably; the identity of member cannot influence the farmers' expenditure of chemical fertilizersignificantly too; the characteristics of farmer cooperative and the service of farmer cooperative arenot the important effects of members1 expenditure of chemical fertilizer as well. The results ofempirical study indicate that Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative cannot decrease theexpenditure of chemical fertilizer effectively.

  ④The mechanism of decreasing the expenditure of pesticides For organizing members to purchase pesticides, the purchase scale of fresh flower farmercooperative is larger than the scale of one householder. Therefore, farmer cooperative can gain thelower price of pesticides. Besides the pesticide, guidance of farmer cooperative can decrease thequantity of pesticides. Therefore fresh flower farmer cooperative can decrease members' cost ofproduction by decreasing their expenditure of pesticides, and cause the growth of members' incomeconsequently. According to the results of empirical study, the member's expenditure of pesticides isless than the nonmembers' expenditure remarkably. The number of farmers, the education years oforganizer, and the average age of farmers, can influence the farmers' expenditure of pesticidessignificantly. The characteristics of farmer cooperative and the service of farmer cooperative arethe important effects of members' expenditure of pesticides.

  2.The growth mechanism based on the business of guiding planting technology andproduction standard(1)The mechanism of improving the quality of fresh flowerThe guidance and help of fresh flower farmer cooperative on planting technology andproduction standard in service, can cause members' planting behavior more scientifically, andimprove the members' quality of fresh flower consequently. According to the results of empiricalstudy, the member's quality of fresh flower is better than the nonmember's; resource endowmentcan influence the farmers' quality of fresh flower significantly; The service of guiding plantingtechnology and the service of guiding production standard are important effects of member'squality.

  (2)The mechanism of increasing the production of fresh flowerThe guidance and help of fresh flower farmer cooperative on planting technology andproduction standard in service,can cause members' planting behavior more scientifically, andincrease the members' production of fresh flower consequently. According to the results ofempirical study, the member's production of fresh flower is higher than the nonmember'sproduction. The size of fresh flower planting region, the age of organizer, and the distance fromplanting area to fresh flower market can influence the farmers' production of fresh flowersignificantly. The service of guiding planting technology and the service of guiding productionstandard are important effects of member's production.

  3.The growth mechanism based on the service as an agent for selling fresh flower(])The mechanism of decreasing the expenditure of fresh flower salesBecause fresh flower farmer cooperative has changed the members' way of selling freshflower, farmer cooperative can improve efficiency of fresh flower trades, decrease the member'sexpenditure of selling fresh flower, and cause the growth of member's income consequently.

  According to the results of empirical study, the member's expenditure of selling flowers is lowerthan nonmembers' evidently; the distance from planting area to fresh flower market, the number offarmers and the average age of farmers are the important effects of member's expenditure of sellingfresh flowers. The characteristics of fanner cooperative and the service of farmer cooperative arethe important effects of members' expenditure of fresh flower sales.

  (2) The mechanism of raising the selling price of fresh flowerFor organizing members to sell fresh flower, farmer cooperative can improve the status infresh flower trades, put up the member's selling price of fresh flower, and cause the growth ofmember's income consequently. According to the results of empirical study, the member's price ofselling flowers is higher than nonmembers' evidently; resource endowment can influence thefarmers' price of selling fresh flower significantly; the cooperative's service of selling flower is theimportant effect of member's price of selling fresh flowers.

  IV The possible innovations1.When we do research on fanner cooperatives, we should notice their variety and theirregion. Our subject is Yunnan fresh flower farmer cooperative. It enriches the related researches oncooperatives. Our research has found that it is very important to organize farmers to plant and sellfresh flowers for increasing fresh flower farmer's income.

  2.Most researches often note the difference between members1 income and nonmembers'

  income. Our research has noted not only the difference between members' income andnonmembers' income, but also the difference between members' income of one cooperative andmembers' income of another cooperative. We have done empirical study on the influence ofcooperatives' characteristics and service on members' income.

  3. Most researches analyze the influence of cooperatives to their members' income fromfarmers' income, farmers' expenditure, or fanners* behaviors of producing and operating. Ourresearch analyzes the influence of cooperatives to their members' income from cooperatives'

  business. The perspective of the research is special. It can help us give good suggestions fromcooperative's business to increase member's income.

  【Keywords】 Farmer cooperative Fresh flower farmer cooperativeMember's income Growth mechanism Fresh flower industry

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