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李琳琳:模糊的边界——农民专业合作社成员边界的研究

时间:2014-09-23 21:02来源:中国农业大学-农村发展与管理;2014年获得博士学位 作者:博士 李琳琳;导师 任大鹏 点击:

  【摘要】 成员是社会组织的基础,成员边界的确定决定了成员在组织内部的权利和义务。在我国合作社发展实践中,合作社的成员边界并不是清晰而明确的成员权利和义务的界限,而是以模糊的形态呈现,包括成员权利和义务的差异性安排、成员边界游移以及混淆的成员边界等现象,使得合作社的成员边界成为一个可以伸缩的弹性单元,成为可供农业公司、专业大户、经纪人等农村中较强势主体利用的策略,使得普通农民成员在合作社中逐渐被边缘化、甚至被排除到成员边界之外,与合作社提高弱势群体市场竞争地位的核心价值相悖。为此,本研究关注在我国合作社的实践中真正能够利用上合作社的主体,并且试图解释普通小规模生产者成员难以利用合作社的内在原因。本研究首先梳理了合作社成员边界的理论界定,明确了成员边界的概念以及形塑成员边界的主要力量。其次,以案例研究的方法,从微观的视角深入观察李屯合作社内部成员边界确定的过程、确定成员边界的主体、成员边界内权利和义务的差异、成员边界模糊的具体表现以及在成员边界确定过程中不同参与主体之间的合作和妥协的互动等合作社成员的行动策略和行动逻辑。研究发现:第一,合作社成员边界的模糊,是一种相对的模糊。在模糊的背后,是核心成员所具有的明确而固定的权责体系。对于非核心成员的成员边界,则通过差异性的权责制度、混淆边界、边界游移等策略性的安排呈不稳定状态。第二,合作社成员边界模糊的逻辑,首先在于合作社组织行动者对合作社利用方式的差异,核心成员为了达到利益最大化采取不同的成员边界策略,是成员边界的主要形塑力量,小规模农户为了回避风险或者以“搭船出海”的心理让渡了部分或者全部成员权利,“政绩观”导向的基层政府对现状的默认。其次,当合作社被当作一种制度引入我国的农村社会,出现了权责明晰的团体格局被嵌入到伸缩范围的差序格局中,因此引出对成员边界模糊状态的另外一种分析进路,即合作社成员边界的模糊和游移,某种程度上也表现了处在差序格局中的人向团体组织中的个人的转变过程,这种成员边界的模糊或者可以被称为是我国农民“现代化”过渡过程中的表现。再次,在于相关制度的失衡,如法律中缺失严格的成员身份认定环节。最后,来源于合作社制度内核的冲突和矛盾。第三,合作社成员边界不稳定的意外后果。在合作社成员边界游移、分类或者混淆边界等成员边界不稳定的种种策略达成后,我国合作社成员结构从最初的成员分层、分类方式等表现呈现的异质性结构,到由于不同分层成员之间的价值和利益取向缺乏关联而出现了较小群体内部的认同,“意外”地导致成员结构同质性趋向的正常后果。第四,在合作社成员边界不稳定的种种现象背后,形成了一种权利和资源的区隔力量,使得合作社成为出资大户和专业大户成员所利用的工具,而大部分普通的种植(养殖户)户成员则处于合作社治理和盈余分配的边缘,从后果上来讲损害了合作社基本原则和核心理念,并与我国政府扶持合作社的目标相悖。第五,合作社的实然边界具有圈层结构,包括由农业公司和村两委成员等代表农村社会中的经济精英和政治精英、以农业经纪人和专业大户以及家庭农场等为代表的中间群体,而普通小规模生产者成员很难进入到合作社的治理结构中。这种从核心扩散到边缘的成员边界结构,与我国当前农村社会的利益格局相符合。第六,对合作社价值和功能的反思。首先,当前合作社发展的价值目标,具有阶段性和功能性的选择,并不具有单一的益贫属性。其次,我国合作社发展中出现的成员边界模糊的现象,折射出在合作社内部已经形成较小规模的认同和行动单位,比如核心群体内部共享清晰的行动准则,虽然现阶段还没有达到合作社成员结构的同质性,但已经具有了利益共同体的趋势。

 

  【关键词】 农民专业合作社; 成员边界; 模糊;

  【Abstract】Member is the elementary factor of social organizations, the boundary of the membership determines the rights and obligations of member in the organization. In the practice of Farmer Specialized Cooperative, the boundary of the members in the cooperative is not clear and explicit, it has a blurring form with features, including differences in arrangements of rights and obligations of the members,the fiizzy and shiftable of boundary of the membership. The phenomenon of the unsteady boundary of membership affects the property and governance structures of the Farmer Specialized Cooperative, it becomes the strategy of agricultural companies, professional investors, brokers and other rural stronger

  farmers, which is contrary to the core values of Cooperatives Principal. Therefore, the ordinary farmer members are gradually being marginalized in the governance and financial structure of the Farmer Specialized Cooperative, or even arc excluded by the real boundary of the membership. Therefore, this study focused on the members who can really take advantage of cooperatives in the practice of Farmer Specialized Cooperative, and attempted to explain the mechanism why general small-scale producer farmers are difficult to exploit the Farmer Specialized Cooperative. In this study, above all, it gave a theoretical definition of the boundary of cooperative members,and built an analytic framework of main factors of cooperative membership to be established. Next, by the case study methods, it discussed how the boundary of cooperative members established in Li Tun Cooperative.

  The findings are as follows:

  Firstly, the phenomenon of the unsteady boundary is in a state of relatively unsteady. The real boundary of members of the Farmer Specialized Cooperative is clear and explicit, including agricultural companies, professional investors, brokers and other stronger farmers in the rural. Otherwise, the rights and obligations of the ordinary planting and breeding members are the fuzzy and shiitable.

  Secondly, it suggested the unsteady membership originates from different utilization and understandings of different members, unsteadiness of China's traditional rural social relationship, unsuitableness of the relative institutional rules.

  Thirdly, according to the classical cooperative theories, cooperative is a organization for farmers to promote their weak market competition position. It means their social and natural resources have a rough similarity. Differently,the cooperatives' member constituent in China has a distinctive and characteristic heterogeneity. When the market and policy have changed, for instance, the land resources could be exchanged by the capital, it made the resources of the small scaled farmer member hardly have the mutual benefit with the large scaled farmer member,some member quit,the constituent of the members have changed. Therefore, it focused the the evolution logic of the flamer specialized cooperatives' member constituent, and it tried to analytic the changes of the connection mechanism between different members.

  Fourthly, on the bases of the summary of the consequences of the unsteady membership in the cooperatives, it refects behind the unsteady form of boundary of cooperative members, there is a power structure make cooperative become the strategy of the stronger members in the cooperatives.

  Fifthly, it suggests there is a layer structure of cooperatives, including agricultural companies and the village committee members as the strong members who control the cooperative, the large scale agricultural producers and the family farms are the middle class, and the small agricultural producers are in the periphery of the boundary of membership, which is in accordance with china,s rural society interests pattern.

  Sixthly, it has reflection on the function and the principal of the cooperative institutions.

  【Key words】Farmer Specialized Cooperative,the boundary of membership, blurring boundary

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